ISTO Bibliography

Armitano, C., Clapham, E., Lamont, L., & Audette, J. (2015). Benefits of Surfing for Children with Disabilities: A Pilot Study. Palaestra, 29, 29-34. doi:10.18666/PALAESTRA, 29.3

Benninger, E., Curtis, C., Sarkisian, G.V., Rogers, C., Bender, K., & Comer, M. (2020). Surf  therapy: A scoping review of the qualitative and quantitative research evidence. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Beranbaum, S., Kouri, N., Van der Merwe, N., DePierro, V. K., & D’Andrea, W. (2022). Behavioral and Biological Indicators of Risk and Well-Being in a Sample of South African Youth. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 1-10.

Brennan, M., Stain, H. J., & Marshall, J. (2024). Mapping the landscape: surf therapy program delivery. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 1-20.

Britton, E., & Foley, R. (2021). Sensing water: Uncovering health and well-being in the sea and surf. Journal of Sport and Social Issues45(1), 60-87.

Britton, E., Kindermann, G., Domegan, C. & Carlin, C. (2018). Blue care: a systematic review of blue space interventions for health and wellbeing. Health Promotion International, 1-20. doi: 10.1093/heapro/day103

Britton, E., Kindermann, G., Carlin, C. (2020). Surfing and the senses. Using body mapping to understand the embodied and therapeutic experiences of young surfers with Autism. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Burtscher, M., & Britton, E. (2022). “There Was Some Kind of Energy Coming into My Heart”: Creating Safe Spaces for Sri Lankan Women and Girls to Enjoy the Wellbeing Benefits of the Ocean. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(6), 3342. MDPI AG. Retrieved from

Caddick, N., Phoenix, C., & Smith, B. (2015). Collective stories and well-being: Using a dialogical narrative approach to understand peer relationships among combat veterans experiencing post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(3), 286-299. doi:10.1177/1359105314566612

Caddick, N., Smith, B., & Phoenix, C. (2015). The Effects of Surfing and the Natural Environment on the Well-Being of Combat Veterans. Qualitative Health Research, 25(1), 76-86. doi:10.1177/1049732314549477

Cavanaugh, L. K., & Rademacher, S. B. (2014). How a SURFing Social Skills Curriculum Can Impact Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, v15 (Spr 2014), p27-35. 

Clapham, E. D., Armitano, C. N., Lamont, L. S., & Audette, J. G. (2014). The Ocean as a Unique Therapeutic Environment: Developing a Surfing Program. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 85(4), 8-14. doi:10.1080/07303084.2014.884424

Clapham, E., Shim, M., & Linda, L. (2017). Surf Therapy for Children With Disabilities: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study. Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 88(s1), A17-A18.

Clapham, E., Lamont, L., Shim, M., & Armitano, C. (2018). A Case Report Illustrating the Implementation of a Therapeutic Surfing Intervention for an Adolescent with Autism. PALAESTRA, 32.2, 49-53 

Clapham, E. D., Lamont, L. S., Shim, M., Lateef, S., & Armitano, C. N. (2019). Effectiveness of Surf Therapy for Children with Disabilities. Disability and Health Journal. doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2019.100828

Colpus, S. & Taylor, J. (2014). Ride every challenge: the impact of surfing on 100 young people facing personal and emotional challenges. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 1581.

Devine-Wright, H. & Godfrey, C. (2020). The Wave Project: Evidencing surf therapy for young people in the UK. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Drake, C. J., Keith, M., Dober, M. R., Evans, S., & Olive, L. S. (2021). A qualitative investigation into the perceived therapeutic benefits and barriers of a surf therapy intervention for youth mental health. Complementary Therapies in Medicine59, 102713.

Fleischmann, D., Michalewicz, B., Stedje-Larsen, E., Neff, J., Murphy, J., Browning, K., . . . McLay, R. (2011). Surf Medicine: Surfing as a Means of Therapy for Combat-Related Polytrauma. JPO: Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, 23, 27-29. doi:10.1097/JPO.0b013e3182065316

Gibbs, K., Wilkie, L., Jarman, J., Barker-Smith, A., Kemp, A. H., & Fisher, Z. (2022). Riding the wave into wellbeing: A qualitative evaluation of surf therapy for individuals living with acquired brain injury. Plos one17(4), e0266388.

Glassman, L. H., Otis, N. P., Michalewicz-Kragh, B., & Walter, K. H. (2021). Gender Differences in Psychological Outcomes Following Surf Therapy Sessions among US Service Members. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(9), 4634.

Glassman, L. H., Otis, N. P., Kobayashi Elliott, K. T., Michalewicz-Kragh, B., & Walter, K. H. (2024). Gender Differences in Psychological Outcomes following Surf versus Hike Therapy among U.S. Service Members. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 21, 241.

Godfrey, C., Devine-Wright, H., & Taylor, J. (2015). The positive impact of structured surfing courses on the wellbeing of vulnerable young people.(Professional and research). Community Practitioner, 88(1), 26. 

Gomes, P., Fazenda, N., Gomez-Baya, D., Rauktis, M.E., & Provost, G. (2020). SURF.ART in Portugal: Daring, accomplishing and transforming Portuguese youth and their communities. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Hignett, A., White, M. P., Pahl, S., Jenkin, R., & Froy, M. L. (2018). Evaluation of a surfing programme designed to increase personal well-being and connectedness to the natural environment among ‘at risk’ young people. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 18(1), 53-69. doi:10.1080/14729679.2017.1326829

Juster-Horsfield, H. H., & Bell, S. L. (2022). Supporting ‘blue care’ through outdoor water-based activities: Practitioner perspectives. Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health14(1), 137-150.

Lemarchand, B. (2014). Activité, acteurs et bienfaits du handisurf: Pratique du surf des mers par les personnes handicapées; Practice, particpents and benefit of handisurf: Sea surfing performed by disabled persons. Kinésithérapie, la revue, Vol.14(146), pp.29-33.

Leonard, A., Tairi, T., & Blampied, N. M. (2022). Tai Wātea/Waves of freedom: an evaluation of a surf therapy programme for improving psychosocial functioning in young men at high risk of adverse life outcomes. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-21.

Lopes, J. T., (2015). Adapted Surfing as a Tool to Promote Inclusion and Rising Disability Awareness in Portugal. Journal of Sport for Development, 3, 4-10.

Lopes, J.T., Masdemont, M. & Cruz, G.M.V., (2018). Adaptive surfing: leisure, competition or therapy? Brazilian Journal of Education, 11(1), 148-159.

Marshall, J., Kamuskay, S., Samai, M.M., Marah, I., Tonkara, F., Conteh, J., Keita, S., Jalloh, O., Missalie, M., Bangura, M., Messeh-Leone, O., Leone, M., Ferrier, B. & MArtindale, R. (2021). A Mixed Methods Exploration of Surf Therapy Piloted for Youth Well-Being in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(12), 6267.

Marshall, J., Kelly, P., & Niven, A. (2019). “When I Go There, I Feel Like I Can Be Myself.” Exploring Programme Theory within the Wave Project Surf Therapy Intervention. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(12). doi:10.3390/ijerph16122159

Marshall, J., Ferrier, B., Ward, P., & Martindale, R. (2020). “When I was surfing with those guys I was surfing with family.” A grounded exploration of program theory within the Jimmy Miller Memorial Foundation surf therapy intervention. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Marshall, J., Ferrier, B., Ward, P.B., & Martindale, R. (2020). “I feel happy when I surf because it takes stress from my mind”: An Initial Exploration of Program Theory within Waves for Change Surf Therapy in Post-Conflict Liberia. Journal of Sport for Development.

Marshall, J., Ferrier, B., Martindale, R., & Ward, P. B. (2023). A grounded theory exploration of programme theory within Waves of Wellness surf therapy intervention. Psychology & Health, 1-23.

Mattila, M. (2020). Coalition building in surf therapy: A case study on collective impact. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Matos, M., Santos, A., Fauvele, C., Marta, F., Evangelista, E., Ferreira, J., . . . Mattila, M. (2017). Surfing for Social Integration: Mental Health and Well-Being promotion through Surf Therapy among Institutionalized Young People. HSOA Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health Care, 4, 026. doi:10.24966/CMPH-1978/100026

McKenzie, R. J., Chambers, T. P., Nicholson-Perry, K., Pilgrim, J., & Ward, P. B. (2021) ” Feels good to get wet”: The unique affordances of surf therapy among Australian youth. Frontiers in Psychology, 4548.

Moore, A. M., Clapham, E. D., & Deeney, T. A. (2018). Parents’ Perspectives on Surf Therapy for Children with Disabilities. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 65(3), 304-317. doi:10.1080/1034912X.2017.1400660


Moreton, S. G., Brennan, M. K., Nicholls, V. I., Wolf, I. D., & Muir, D. L. (2021). Exploring potential mechanisms underpinning the therapeutic effects of surfing. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-18.

Olive, L., Dober, M., Mazza, C., Turner, A., Mohebbi, M., Berk, M., & Telford, R. (2023). Surf therapy for improving child and adolescent mental health: A pilot randomised control trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 65, 102349.

Olive, L., Parker, R., Dober, M., Drake, C., Keith, M., & Telford, R. (2020). Intervention mapping: Using theory and evidence to inform the Ocean Mind surf therapy program for improving youth mental health. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Otis, N. P., Walter, K. H., Glassman, L. H., Ray, T. N., Michalewicz-Kragh, B., & Thomsen, C. J. (2020). Effects of PTSD and MDD comorbidity on psychological changes during surf therapy sessions for active duty service members. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Podavkova, T., & Dolejs, M. (2022). Surf Therapy—Qualitative Analysis: Organization and Structure of Surf Programs and Requirements, Demands and Expectations of Personal Staff. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health19(4), 2299.

Poissant, L., & Cristea, K. (2022). The Impact of Participation in Multiple Surf Therapy Events for Children with Unique Needs. PALAESTRA36(2).

Rogers, C., Mallinson, T., & Peppers, D. (2014). High-Intensity Sports for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression: Feasibility Study of Ocean Therapy With Veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(4), 395-404. doi:10.5014/ajot.2014.011221

Rosenbaum, S., Ager, A., Snider, L., Warria, A., Collison, H., Hermosilla, S., & Vancampfort, D. (2021). Physical activity, mental health and psychosocial support. Forced Migration Review, (66), 34-37.

Sarkisian, G.V., Curtis, C., & Rogers, C.M. (2020). Emerging hope: Outcomes of a one-day surf therapy program with at-promise youth. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Silva, B., Cruz, G., Bentes, R., & Lima, R. F. (2022). Surfing on physical education curriculum and the impact on student’s well-being. Journal of Physical Education33.

Stuhl, A., & Porter, H. (2015). Riding the Waves: Therapeutic Surfing to Improve Social Skills for Children with Autism. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 49(3), 253-256. 

Van der Merwe, N. & Yarrow, P. (2020). More than surfing: Inclusive surf therapy informed by the voices of South African children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Van Ewijk, H., Wansink-Lokerman, M., Lamerz, A., & Van den Broek, S. (2020). Positive effects of surfing on psychological wellbeing for children with developmental difficulties. Special Issue of Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice on Surf Therapy.

Walter, K. H., Otis, N. P., Glassman, L. H., Ray, T. N., Michalewicz-Kragh, B., Elliott, K. T. K., & Thomsen, C. J. (2019). Comparison of surf and hike therapy for active duty service members with major depressive disorder: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of novel interventions in a naturalistic setting. Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications, (16), 100435.

Walter, K. H., Otis, N. P., Ray, T. N., Glassman, L. H., Michalewicz-Kragh, B., Powell, A. L., & Thomsen, C. J. (2019). Breaking the surface: Psychological outcomes among US active duty service members following a surf therapy program. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, (45) 101551. Doi:

Walter, K. H., Otis, N. P., Ray, T. N., Glassman, L. H., Beltran, J. L., Kobayashi Elliott, K. T., & Michalewicz-Kragh, B. (In press). A randomized controlled trial of surf and hike therapy for U.S. active duty service members with major depressive disorder. BMC Psychiatry.

Walter, K.H., Otis, N.P., Miggantz, E.L., Ray, T.N., Glassman, L.H., Beltran, J.L., Kobayashi Elliott, K.T., & Michalewicz-Kragh, B. (2023). Psychological and Functional Outcomes Following a Randomized Controlled Trial of Surf and Hike Therapy for U.S. Service Members. Frontiers in Psychology, Special Issue on Lifestyle Interventions for Traumatic Stress, 14:1185774. https://doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2023.1185774

Wheaton, B., Roy, G. & Olive, R. (2017). Exploring Critical Alternatives for Youth Development through Lifestyle Sport: Surfing and Community Development in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Sustainability, 9, 2298.

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